For this to work it is important that the node reacting to filter events needs to have the column that the filter was applied on at an input port.
If you check the output of the filter node you will see that the data was not changed, only a filter definition was applied to the appropriate column in the table spec. A node reacting to filter events needs to ‘see’ this definition.
After changing a filter in a view the new values are preserved in the filter definition. If you actually want to filter a table in the workflow you can use the Filter Apply node for that.