Thanks for your kind comments and for having validated the solution here too.
In this case, since you are familiar with mathematical notation, I would definitely recommend to follow from A to Z the extremely good tutorials by Jason Brownlee at his blog:
He is one of my preferred blog authors on Machine Learning. He is skilled, rigorous and very didactic. His books are really affordable in PDF format with plenty of examples and all of them with exercises are covered on his many blog articles as well. I would definitely recommend him to a MS Engineering student to start learning Machine Learning from scratch but with a good formal mathematical teaching.
His examples are not based on KNIME but on Python. Having said this, I believe it would be an excellent exercise for you to take these examples and try to translate them into KNIME workflows. Besides this, you could also take his Python code and directly integrate it into the KNIME Python nodes.
But as I said before, I would start first with the KNIME Press books to get really familiar with the KNIME environment and then the rest.
Hope this helps.
Good luck and best wishes,